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Faculty Rank: Professor
Medical or Graduate Education:
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Cleveland Clinic Foundation - Orthopedic Surgery
University of Washington Medical Center - Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Rotator cuff injuries
Shoulder injuries and disorders
Shoulder joint replacement
Shoulder surgery, revision
Clinical evaluation of rotator cuff repair
Clinical evaluation of shoulder stabilization
Biomechanical and anatomical analysis of the biceps tendon
Below is a list of scientific publications for which this practitioner was either the primary author or a contributor. Citations come from PubMed, a database of biomedical literature, life science journals and online books. PubMed is a service of the US Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. Click on the title of the cited work for more information (this will take you directly to PubMed.gov). Listings go back five years.
Long-term outcomes after bankart shoulder stabilization. Harris JD, Gupta AK, Mall NA, Abrams GD, McCormick FM, Cole BJ, Bach BR Jr, Romeo AA, Verma NN. Arthroscopy. 2013 2013 May 29(5):920-33. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.11.010. Epub 2013 Feb 5. Arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repairs in patients aged younger than 45 years. Lin EC, Mall NA, Dhawan A, Sherman SL, McGill KC, Provencher MT, Nicholson GP, Cole BJ, Solomon DJ, Verma NN, Romeo AA. Arthroscopy. 2013 2013 May 29(5):811-7. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.01.015. Epub 2013 Mar 16. An assessment of the quality of rotator cuff randomized controlled trials: utilizing the Jadad score and CONSORT criteria. McCormick F, Cvetanovich GL, Kim JM, Harris JD, Gupta AK, Abrams GD, Romeo AA, Provencher CM. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013 2013 Mar 16. doi:pii: S1058-2746(13)00040-2. 10.1016/j.jse.2013.01.017. [Epub ahead of print] An Evidenced-Based Examination of the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Traumatic Rotator Cuff Tears. Mall NA, Lee AS, Chahal J, Sherman SL, Romeo AA, Verma NN, Cole BJ. Arthroscopy. 2013 2013 Jan 3. doi:pii: S0749-8063(12)01698-2. 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.06.024. [Epub ahead of print] Revision posterior shoulder stabilization. Chalmers PN, Hammond LJ, Juhan T, Romeo AA. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013 2013 Feb 15. doi:pii: S1058-2746(12)00545-9. 10.1016/j.jse.2012.11.019. [Epub ahead of print] Transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair: a systematic review on the biomechanical importance of tying the medial row. Mall NA, Lee AS, Chahal J, Van Thiel GS, Romeo AA, Verma NN, Cole BJ. Arthroscopy. 2013 2013 Feb 29(2):377-86. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.11.008. Histomorphologic Changes of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon in Common Shoulder Pathologies. Mazzocca AD, McCarthy MB, Ledgard FA, Chowaniec DM, McKinnon WJ Jr, Delaronde S, Rubino LJ, Apolostakos J, Romeo AA, Arciero RA, Beitzel K. Arthroscopy. 2013 2013 Apr 6. doi:pii: S0749-8063(13)00121-7. 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.02.002. [Epub ahead of print] Retrospective analysis of arthroscopic superior labrum anterior to posterior repair: prognostic factors associated with failure. Frank RM, Nho SJ, McGill KC, Grumet RC, Cole BJ, Verma NN, Romeo AA. Adv Orthop. 2013 2013 2013:125960. doi: 10.1155/2013/125960. Epub 2013 Mar 25. Outcomes of arthroscopic and open surgical repair of isolated subscapularis tendon tears. Mall NA, Chahal J, Heard WM, Bach BR Jr, Bush-Joseph CA, Romeo AA, Verma NN. Arthroscopy. 2012 2012 Sep 28(9):1306-14. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.02.018. Epub 2012 May 18. Review. The role of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a systematic review with quantitative synthesis. Chahal J, Van Thiel GS, Mall N, Heard W, Bach BR, Cole BJ, Nicholson GP, Verma NN, Whelan DB, Romeo AA. Arthroscopy. 2012 2012 Nov 28(11):1718-27. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.03.007. Epub 2012 Jun 12. The role of subacromial decompression in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chahal J, Mall N, MacDonald PB, Van Thiel G, Cole BJ, Romeo AA, Verma NN. Arthroscopy. 2012 2012 May 28(5):720-7. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2011.11.022. Epub 2012 Feb 2. Review. The value of somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during scapulothoracic arthrodesis: case report and review of literature. Bhatia S, Hsu AR, Harwood D, Toleikis JR, Mather RC 3rd, Romeo AA. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012 2012 Jul 21(7):e14-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2011.12.003. Epub 2012 Apr 21. Review. No abstract available. Platelet-rich plasma differs according to preparation method and human variability. Mazzocca AD, McCarthy MB, Chowaniec DM, Cote MP, Romeo AA, Bradley JP, Arciero RA, Beitzel K. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 2012 Feb 15 94(4):308-16. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00430. Biomechanical Evaluation of Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair: Do Anchors Really Matter? Salata MJ, Sherman SL, Lin EC, Sershon RA, Gupta A, Shewman E, Wang VM, Cole BJ, Romeo AA, Verma NN. Am J Sports Med. 2012 2012 Dec 13. [Epub ahead of print] Operative treatment of chondral defects in the glenohumeral joint. Gross CE, Chalmers PN, Chahal J, Van Thiel G, Bach BR Jr, Cole BJ, Romeo AA. Arthroscopy. 2012 2012 Dec 28(12):1889-901. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.03.026. Epub 2012 Jul 15. Biomechanical analysis of the pectoralis major tendon and comparison of techniques for tendo-osseous repair. Sherman SL, Lin EC, Verma NN, Mather RC, Gregory JM, Dishkin J, Harwood DP, Wang VM, Shewman EF, Cole BJ, Romeo AA. Am J Sports Med. 2012 2012 Aug 40(8):1887-94. doi: 10.1177/0363546512452849. Epub 2012 Jul 9. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the Goutallier classification using magnetic resonance imaging: proposal of a simplified classification system to increase reliability. Slabaugh MA, Friel NA, Karas V, Romeo AA, Verma NN, Cole BJ. Am J Sports Med. 2012 2012 Aug 40(8):1728-34. doi: 10.1177/0363546512452714. Epub 2012 Jul 2. The positive effects of different platelet-rich plasma methods on human muscle, bone, and tendon cells. Mazzocca AD, McCarthy MB, Chowaniec DM, Dugdale EM, Hansen D, Cote MP, Bradley JP, Romeo AA, Arciero RA, Beitzel K. Am J Sports Med. 2012 2012 Aug 40(8):1742-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546512452713. Epub 2012 Jul 16. The Hill-Sachs lesion: diagnosis, classification, and management. Provencher MT, Frank RM, Leclere LE, Metzger PD, Ryu JJ, Bernhardson A, Romeo AA. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 2012 Apr 20(4):242-52. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-20-04-242. Review. The importance of the recognition and treatment of glenoid bone loss in an athletic population. Bhatia S, Ghodadra NS, Romeo AA, Bach BR, Verma NN, Vo ST, Provencher MT. Sports Health. 2011 2011 Sep 3(5):435-40. Joint chondrolysis. Provencher MT, Navaie M, Solomon DJ, Smith JC, Romeo AA, Cole BJ. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 2011 Nov 2 93(21):2033-44. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01931. Review. Humeral component revision arthroplasty: outcomes of a split osteotomy technique. Johnston PS, Creighton RA, Romeo AA. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 May 18 The vertical humeral osteotomy for stem removal in revision shoulder arthroplasty: results and technique. Van Thiel GS, Halloran JP, Twigg S, Romeo AA, Nicholson GP. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Mar 17 Biomechanical evaluation of margin convergence Mazzocca AD, Bollier M, Fehsenfeld D, Romeo A, Stephens K, Solovyoya O, Obopilwe E, Ciminiello A, Nowak MD, Arciero R Arthroscopy 2011 Mar 27(3):330-8 The Arthroscopic Management of Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review of the Literature Strauss EJ, Salata MJ, Kercher J, Barker JU, McGill K, Bach BR Jr, Romeo AA, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2011 Feb 4 Glenohumeral arthritis in the young adult. Provencher MT, Barker JU, Strauss EJ, Frank RM, Romeo AA, Matsen FA III, Cole BJ. Instr Course Lect. 2011 60:137-53. Osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum Baker CL 3rd, Romeo AA, Baker CL Jr Am J Sports Med 2010 Sep 38(9):1917-28 Management of the failed posterior/multidirectional instability patient Forsythe B, Ghodadra N, Romeo AA, Provencher MT Sports Med Arthrosc 2010 Sep 18(3):149-61 Management of failed biceps tenodesis or tenotomy: causation and treatment Heckman DS, Creighton RA, Romeo AA Sports Med Arthrosc 2010 Sep 18(3):173-80 Management of the failed AC joint reconstruction: causation and treatment Geaney LE, Miller MD, Ticker JB, Romeo AA, Guerra JJ, Bollier M, Arciero RA, DeBerardino TM, Mazzocca A Sports Med Arthrosc 2010 Sep 18(3):167-72 Biceps Tenodesis With Interference Screw Fixation: A Biomechanical Comparison of Screw Length and Diameter Slabaugh MM, Frank RM, Van Thiel GS, Bell RM, Wang VM, Trenhaile S, Provencher CM, Romeo AA, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2010 Oct 26 Outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in patients aged 70 years or older Verma NN, Bhatia S, Baker CL 3rd, Cole BJ, Boniquit N, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2010 Oct 26(10):1273-80 Retrospective analysis of arthroscopic management of glenohumeral degenerative disease Van Thiel GS, Sheehan S, Frank RM, Slabaugh M, Cole BJ, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2010 Nov 26(11):1451-5 Long head of the biceps tendinopathy: diagnosis and management Nho SJ, Strauss EJ, Lenart BA, Provencher MT, Mazzocca AD, Verma NN, Romeo AA J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2010 Nov 18(11):645-56 Biomechanical and biologic augmentation for the treatment of massive rotator cuff tears Nho SJ, Delos D, Yadav H, Pensak M, Romeo AA, Warren RF, MacGillivray JD Am J Sports Med 2010 Mar 38(3):619-29 Arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression: indications and surgical technique Romeo AA, Ghodadra NS, Salata MJ, Provencher MT J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010 Mar 19(2 Suppl):118-23 Does the literature confirm superior clinical results in radiographically healed rotator cuffs after rotator cuff repair? Slabaugh MA, Nho SJ, Grumet RC, Wilson JB, Seroyer ST, Frank RM, Romeo AA, Provencher MT, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2010 Mar 26(3):393-403 Osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum Baker CL 3rd, Baker CL Jr, Romeo AA J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010 Mar 19(2 Suppl):76-82 The kinetic chain in overhand pitching: its potential role for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Seroyer ST, Nho SJ, Bach BR, Bush-Joseph CA, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA. Sports Health. 2010 2010 Mar 2(2):135-46. Normalization of glenohumeral articular contact pressures after Latarjet or iliac crest bone-grafting Ghodadra N, Gupta A, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr, Verma N, Shewman E, Goldstein J, Provencher MT J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010 Jun 92(6):1478-89 Complications associated with subpectoral biceps tenodesis: low rates of incidence following surgery Nho SJ, Reiff SN, Verma NN, Slabaugh MA, Mazzocca AD, Romeo AA J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010 Jul 19(5):764-8 Biomechanical similarities among subscapularis repairs after shoulder arthroplasty Van Thiel GS, Wang VM, Wang FC, Nho SJ, Piasecki DP, Bach BR Jr, Romeo AA J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010 Jul 19(5):657-63 Proximal humerus fracture after keyhole biceps tenodesis Reiff SN, Nho SJ, Romeo AA Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2010 Jul 39(7):E61-3 Incidence of early development of radiolucent lines in keeled polyethylene glenoid components after total shoulder arthroplasty Nho SJ, Frank RM, Verma NN, Romeo AA Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2010 Jul 39(7):333-7 Arthroscopic debridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis Lattermann C, Romeo AA, Anbari A, Meininger AK, McCarty LP, Cole BJ, Cohen MS J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010 Jul 19(5):651-6 Arthroscopic management of anterior instability: pearls, pitfalls, and lessons learned Provencher MT, Ghodadra N, Romeo AA Orthop Clin North Am 2010 Jul 41(3):325-37 Outcomes after arthroscopic revision rotator cuff repair Piasecki DP, Verma NN, Nho SJ, Bhatia S, Boniquit N, Cole BJ, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA Am J Sports Med 2010 Jan 38(1):40-6 Posterior Instability of the Shoulder: Diagnosis and Management Provencher MT, Leclere LE, King S, Frank RM, Mologne TS, Ghodadra NS, Romeo AA Am J Sports Med 2010 Dec 4 Recurrent shoulder instability: current concepts for evaluation and management of glenoid bone loss Provencher MT, Bhatia S, Ghodadra NS, Grumet RC, Bach BR Jr, Dewing CB, LeClere L, Romeo AA J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010 Dec 92 Suppl 2:133-51 Arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears combined with open biceps tenodesis Nho SJ, Frank RM, Reiff SN, Verma NN, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2010 Dec 26(12):1667-74 Medial versus lateral supraspinatus tendon properties: implications for double-row rotator cuff repair Wang VM, Wang FC, McNickle AG, Friel NA, Yanke AB, Chubinskaya S, Romeo AA, Verma NN, Cole BJ Am J Sports Med 2010 Dec 38(12):2456-63 Early return to work in workers' compensation patients after arthroscopic full-thickness rotator cuff repair Bhatia S, Piasecki DP, Nho SJ, Romeo AA, Cole BJ, Nicholson GP, Boniquit N, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2010 Aug 26(8):1027-34 Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle: diagnosis and management Provencher MT, Handfield K, Boniquit NT, Reiff SN, Sekiya JK, Romeo AA Am J Sports Med 2010 Aug 38(8):1693-705 Scapulothoracic fusion DeFranco MJ, Nho S, Romeo AA J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2010 Apr 18(4):236-42 Clinical outcomes after microfracture of the glenohumeral joint Frank RM, Van Thiel GS, Slabaugh MA, Romeo AA, Cole BJ, Verma NN Am J Sports Med 2010 Apr 38(4):772-81 Four-quadrant approach to capsulolabral repair: an arthroscopic road map to the glenoid Seroyer ST, Nho SJ, Provencher MT, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2010 Apr 26(4):555-62 Key factors in primary and revision surgery for shoulder instability Provencher MT, Arciero RA, Burkhart SS, Levine WN, Ritting AW, Romeo AA Instr Course Lect 2010 59:227-44 Conversion of Glenohumeral Fusion to Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for Scapulothoracic Pain: Case Report and Surgical Technique Nho SJ, Garbis N, Reiff S, Terry A, Shindelar S, Romeo AA HSS J 2009 Sep 23 Postsurgical glenohumeral arthritis in young adults McNickle AG, L'Heureux DR, Provencher MT, Romeo AA, Cole BJ Am J Sports Med 2009 Sep 37(9):1784-91 Combined arthroscopic repair of a type IV SLAP tear and Bankart lesion Baker CL 3rd, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2009 Sep 25(9):1045-50 The snapping scapula: diagnosis and treatment Kuhne M, Boniquit N, Ghodadra N, Romeo AA, Provencher MT Arthroscopy 2009 Nov 25(11):1298-311 Suprascapular neuropathy Piasecki DP, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr, Nicholson GP J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2009 Nov 17(11):665-76 Does the literature support double-row suture anchor fixation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? A systematic review comparing double-row and single-row suture anchor configuration Nho SJ, Slabaugh MA, Seroyer ST, Grumet RC, Wilson JB, Verma NN, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr Arthroscopy 2009 Nov 25(11):1319-28 A new arthroscopic technique to determine anterior-inferior glenoid bone loss: validation of the secant chord theory in a cadaveric model Detterline AJ, Provencher MT, Ghodadra N, Bach BR Jr, Romeo AA, Verma NN Arthroscopy 2009 Nov 25(11):1249-56 Anatomic reduction and next-generation fixation constructs for arthroscopic repair of crescent, L-shaped, and U-shaped rotator cuff tears Nho SJ, Ghodadra N, Provencher MT, Reiff S, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2009 May 25(5):553-9 Biceps activity during windmill softball pitching: injury implications and comparison with overhand throwing Rojas IL, Provencher MT, Bhatia S, Foucher KC, Bach BR Jr, Romeo AA, Wimmer MA, Verma NN Am J Sports Med 2009 Mar 37(3):558-65 Shoulder pain in the overhead throwing athlete. Seroyer ST, Nho SJ, Bach BR Jr, Bush-Joseph CA, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA. Sports Health. 2009 2009 Mar 1(2):108-20. Bioabsorbable anchors in glenohumeral shoulder surgery Nho SJ, Provencher MT, Seroyer ST, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2009 Jul 25(7):788-93 A long-head of biceps tendon rupture in a fast pitch softball player: a case report Ferry AT, Lee GH, Murphy R, Romeo AA, Verma NN J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2009 Jan-Feb 18(1):e14-7 The use of rotator interval closure in the arthroscopic treatment of posterior shoulder instability Provencher MT, Mologne TS, Romeo AA, Bradley JP Arthroscopy 2009 Jan 25(1):109-10; author reply 110-1 Open, mini-open, and all-arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery: indications and implications for rehabilitation Ghodadra NS, Provencher MT, Verma NN, Wilk KE, Romeo AA J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2009 Feb 39(2):81-9 Arthroscopic repair of L-shaped tear of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex in a pediatric patient: a technical note Nho SJ, Reiff SN, Van Thiel GS, Romeo AA Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2009 Dec 17(12):1454-7 Complications associated with anterior shoulder instability repair Kang RW, Frank RM, Nho SJ, Ghodadra NS, Verma NN, Romeo AA, Provencher MT Arthroscopy 2009 Aug 25(8):909-20 Open and arthroscopic management of lateral epicondylitis in the athlete Cohen MS, Romeo AA Hand Clin 2009 Aug 25(3):331-8 Glenoid bone deficiency in recurrent anterior shoulder instability: diagnosis and management Piasecki DP, Verma NN, Romeo AA, Levine WN, Bach BR Jr, Provencher MT J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2009 Aug 17(8):482-93 Rotator cuff tears: pathology and repair Yadav H, Nho S, Romeo A, MacGillivray JD Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2009 Apr 17(4):409-21 Anatomic osteochondral glenoid reconstruction for recurrent glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using a distal tibia allograft Provencher MT, Ghodadra N, LeClere L, Solomon DJ, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2009 Apr 25(4):446-52 Arthroscopic decompression of the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch and suprascapular notch through the subacromial space Ghodadra N, Nho SJ, Verma NN, Reiff S, Piasecki DP, Provencher MT, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2009 Apr 25(4):439-45 Subpectoral biceps tenodesis Provencher MT, LeClere LE, Romeo AA Sports Med Arthrosc 2008 Sep 16(3):170-6 Clinical outcomes after subpectoral biceps tenodesis with an interference screw Mazzocca AD, Cote MP, Arciero CL, Romeo AA, Arciero RA Am J Sports Med 2008 Oct 36(10):1922-9 Biceps tendinitis in chronic rotator cuff tears: a histologic perspective Singaraju VM, Kang RW, Yanke AB, McNickle AG, Lewis PB, Wang VM, Williams JM, Chubinskaya S, Romeo AA, Cole BJ J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2008 Nov-Dec 17(6):898-904 Lateral epicondylitis: anatomic relationships of the extensor tendon origins and implications for arthroscopic treatment Cohen MS, Romeo AA, Hennigan SP, Gordon M J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2008 Nov-Dec 17(6):954-60 Articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head: an anatomic study Fox JA, Cole BJ, Romeo AA, Meininger AK, Williams JM, Glenn RE Jr, Bicos J, Hayden JK, Dorow CB Orthopedics 2008 Mar 31(3):216 The addition of rotator interval closure after arthroscopic repair of either anterior or posterior shoulder instability: effect on glenohumeral translation and range of motion Mologne TS, Zhao K, Hongo M, Romeo AA, An KN, Provencher MT Am J Sports Med 2008 Jun 36(6):1123-31 Measurement of glenoid bone loss: a comparison of measurement error between 45 degrees and 0 degrees bone loss models and with different posterior arthroscopy portal locations Provencher MT, Detterline AJ, Ghodadra N, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr, Cole BJ, Verma N Am J Sports Med 2008 Jun 36(6):1132-8 Arthroscopic treatment of multidirectional shoulder instability with minimum 270 degrees labral repair: minimum 2-year follow-up Alpert JM, Verma N, Wysocki R, Yanke AB, Romeo AA Arthroscopy 2008 Jun 24(6):704-11 Biomechanical and radiographic analysis of partial coracoclavicular ligament injuries Mazzocca AD, Spang JT, Rodriguez RR, Rios CG, Shea KP, Romeo AA, Arciero RA Am J Sports Med 2008 Jul 36(7):1397-402 A biomechanical analysis of capsular plication versus anchor repair of the shoulder: can the labrum be used as a suture anchor? Provencher MT, Verma N, Obopilwe E, Rincon LM, Tracy J, Romeo AA, Mazzocca A Arthroscopy 2008 Feb 24(2):210-6 Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament: injury pattern and arthroscopic repair techniques Parameswaran AD, Provencher MT, Bach BR Jr, Verma N, Romeo AA Orthopedics 2008 Aug 31(8):773-9 Posterior and multidirectional instability of the shoulder: challenges associated with diagnosis and management Provencher MT, Romeo AA Instr Course Lect 2008 57:133-52
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I knew I wanted to be an orthopedic surgeon when I was in high school, and I saw what my dad did when he was on the sidelines of my football team and how he would take care of some of the injuries that would occur. And I said, “Boy, that’s the kind of doctor I want to be. What is that?” And it was an orthopedic surgeon who liked to do sports medicine. And then once I got into my residency program, I recognized that at that time, 20 years ago, there was a lot of information about the knee and problems related to the knee, but the shoulder understanding was in it’s infancy. And that really intrigued me. I thought that there was a lot of opportunity to learn more about the shoulder and to contribute more to my profession, in terms of understanding the problems and figuring out the problems. And that’s why, out of the whole area of sports medicine, I decided to focus in shoulder and elbow surgery.
We can tell that the operations we’re doing are — number one they’re very effective. The results are getting what we want, which is pain relief and return back to function. Number two, the operations are very consistent. We’re not getting the just once in a while but on a regular basis. And number three, once we have really learned how to do this well and teach it to other surgeons, we hear back from those other surgeons — whether they trained with us or we’ve taught them at a course — that, “I’m really happy that I learned how to do that operation from you because my patients are getting better much faster and much more consistently.”